Indian Council of Political Leaders:- ICPL

13 Keys to the White House by Professor Allan Lichtman
  • • KEY 1: Party mandate. After the midterm elections, the incumbent party holds more seats in the U.S. House of Representatives than it did after the previous midterm elections.
  • • KEY 2: Contest. There is no serious contest for the incumbent-party nomination.
  • • KEY 3: Incumbency. The incumbent-party candidate is the sitting president.
  • • KEY 4: Third party. There is no significant third-party or independent campaign.
  • • KEY 5: Short-term economy. The economy is not in recession during the election campaign.
  • • KEY 6: Long-term economy. Real per capita economic growth during the term equals or exceeds mean growth during the previous two terms.
  • • KEY 7: Policy change. The incumbent administration effects major changes in national policy.
  • • KEY 8: Social unrest. There is no sustained social unrest during the term.
  • • KEY 9: Scandal. The administration is untainted by major scandal.
  • • KEY 10: Foreign/military failure. The administration suffers no major failure in foreign or military affairs.
  • • KEY 11: Foreign/military success. The administration achieves a major success in foreign or military affairs.
  • • KEY 12: Incumbent charisma. The incumbent-party candidate is charismatic or a national hero.
  • • KEY 13: Challenger charisma: The challenging-party candidate is not charismatic or a national hero.


The keys show that elections are not horse races in which candidates surge ahead or fall behind on the campaign trail, with pollsters keeping score,” Lichtman said. “Rather, a pragmatic American electorate chooses a president according to the performance of the party holding the White House as measured by the consequential events and episodes of a term — economic boom and bust, foreign policy successes and failures, social unrest, scandal and policy innovation


Shri Dilipbhai Snaghani (Hon. Minister Law and Justice- Government of Gujarat, President:- ICPL)

Shri Mahendra Sinh Rana(Mayor of Gandhinagar)

Dr. Jyotiben Pandya( Mayor of Vadodara City)

Shri. Manubhai Patel (Opposition Minister GMC)

Shri Nitinbhai Patel (Pandav Associates)

Shri Suvas Barot (Director Infocity Gandhinagar)

Dr. Allan Lichtman (Speaker for the event)(for more details click here)

Miss Angela Gamecha.

Shri Ghanshyam Patel (Project Chairman ICPL)

Shri Sanjeev Mehta (Security Council, ICPL)